STDs and HIV Burden in South Africa
Wand, H., Reddy, T., Dassaye, R., Moodley, J., Naidoo, S., & Ramjee, G. (2020, September 3). Estimating prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections among South African women: Implications of combined impacts of risk factors. International Journal of STD & AIDS, 31(11), 1093-1101.
According to researches, South Africa is the epicenter of HIV; additionally, it is the sexually transmitted disease that gives it the highest-burden across the globe. The country has an STI prevalence of 20% and an incidence of 15 per 100 people. Some of the most common causing factors are cohabitation, parity, multiple sex partners, and age at debut sex. However, these factors only accounted for 51% of all the prevalence and incidences, evidencing how unaccounted factors still high.
Moodley, D., Moodley, P., Sebitloane, M., Soowamber, D., McNaughton-Reyes, H. L., Groves, A. K., & Maman, S. (2015). High prevalence and incidence of asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections during pregnancy and postdelivery in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. Sexually transmitted diseases, 42(1), 43-47.
World Health Organization recently studied South Africa's state on HIV and sexually transmitted infections. In South Africa, pregnancies and postpartum had more STIs in HIV-1 infected persons, especially women, compared to Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhea infections that were asymptomatic.
Naidoo, S., Wand, H., Abbai, N. S., & Ramjee, G. (2014). High prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections among women living in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. AIDS research and therapy, 11(1), 1-7.
South Africa faces a huge burden of health contributed largely by sexually transmitted infections. The same is also majorly recognized as a contributor to HIV. This research purposed to expound on risk factors coming with incidents and prevalent STIs in women. In KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, where the human immunodeficiency virus is severe, there were an extremely high prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections, especially in women. The study thus recommends urgent resource allocation to control the situation.
Mlisana, K., Naicker, N., Werner, L., Roberts, L., Van Loggerenberg, F., Baxter, C., ... & Abdool Karim, S. S. (2012). Symptomatic vaginal discharge is a poor predictor of sexually transmitted infections and genital tract inflammation in high-risk women in South Africa. The Journal of infectious diseases, 206(1), 6-14.
Since STIs and HIV are managed syndromically in developing countries, the study evaluated the sufficiency of syndromic diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections. The study found that in South Africa, diagnosing of STI using vaginal discharge was below par prognostic of laboratory diagnosis. On the other hand, laboratory diagnosis was linked to HIV gaining.
Peters, R. P., Dubbink, J. H., van der Eem, L., Verweij, S. P., Bos, M. L., Ouburg, S., ... & Morré, S. A. (2014). Cross-sectional study of genital, rectal, and pharyngeal Chlamydia and gonorrhea in women in rural South Africa. Sexually transmitted diseases, 41(9), 564-569.
Rectal, genital, gonorrhea, and pharyngeal Chlamydia are asymptomatic and highly prevalent in South Africa. It was also found young women and pregnant women were more susceptible in the rural villages of South Africa. Thus more resources should be put in place to control the prevalence.
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