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Getting Bootstrap Classes and General Knowledge for Beginners

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Overview

Get the lowdown on the key pieces of Bootstrap's infrastructure, including our approach to better, faster, stronger web development.

HTML5 doctype

Bootstrap makes use of certain HTML elements and CSS properties that require the use of the HTML5 doctype. Include it at the beginning of all your projects.

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<!doctype html>
<html lang="en">
  ...
</html>

Mobile first

With Bootstrap 2, we added optional mobile friendly styles for key aspects of the framework. With Bootstrap 3, we've rewritten the project to be mobile friendly from the start. Instead of adding on optional mobile styles, they're baked right into the core. In fact, Bootstrap is mobile first. Mobile first styles can be found throughout the entire library instead of in separate files.

To ensure proper rendering and touch zooming, add the viewport meta tag to your <head>.

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<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">

You can disable zooming capabilities on mobile devices by adding user-scalable=no to the viewport meta tag. This disables zooming, meaning users are only able to scroll, and results in your site feeling a bit more like a native application. Overall, we don't recommend this on every site, so use caution!

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<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1, maximum-scale=1, user-scalable=no">

Typography and links

Bootstrap sets basic global display, typography, and link styles. Specifically, we:

  • Set background-color: #fff; on the body
  • Use the @font-family-base@font-size-base, and @line-height-base attributes as our typographic base
  • Set the global link color via @link-color and apply link underlines only on :hover

These styles can be found within scaffolding.less.

Normalize.css

For improved cross-browser rendering, we use Normalize.css, a project by Nicolas Gallagher and Jonathan Neal.

Containers

Bootstrap requires a containing element to wrap site contents and house our grid system. You may choose one of two containers to use in your projects. Note that, due to padding and more, neither container is nestable.

Use .container for a responsive fixed width container.

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<div class="container">
  ...
</div>

Use .container-fluid for a full width container, spanning the entire width of your viewport.

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<div class="container-fluid">
  ...
</div>

Grid system

Bootstrap includes a responsive, mobile first fluid grid system that appropriately scales up to 12 columns as the device or viewport size increases. It includes predefined classes for easy layout options, as well as powerful mixins for generating more semantic layouts.

Introduction

Grid systems are used for creating page layouts through a series of rows and columns that house your content. Here's how the Bootstrap grid system works:

  • Rows must be placed within a .container (fixed-width) or .container-fluid (full-width) for proper alignment and padding.
  • Use rows to create horizontal groups of columns.
  • Content should be placed within columns, and only columns may be immediate children of rows.
  • Predefined grid classes like .row and .col-xs-4 are available for quickly making grid layouts. Less mixins can also be used for more semantic layouts.
  • Columns create gutters (gaps between column content) via padding. That padding is offset in rows for the first and last column via negative margin on .rows.
  • The negative margin is why the examples below are outdented. It's so that content within grid columns is lined up with non-grid content.
  • Grid columns are created by specifying the number of twelve available columns you wish to span. For example, three equal columns would use three .col-xs-4.
  • If more than 12 columns are placed within a single row, each group of extra columns will, as one unit, wrap onto a new line.
  • Grid classes apply to devices with screen widths greater than or equal to the breakpoint sizes, and override grid classes targeted at smaller devices. Therefore, e.g. applying any .col-md-* class to an element will not only affect its styling on medium devices but also on large devices if a .col-lg-* class is not present.

Look to the examples for applying these principles to your code.

Media queries

We use the following media queries in our Less files to create the key breakpoints in our grid system.

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/* Extra small devices (phones, less than 768px) */
/* No media query since this is the default in Bootstrap */

/* Small devices (tablets, 768px and up) */
@media (min-width: @screen-sm-min) { ... }

/* Medium devices (desktops, 992px and up) */
@media (min-width: @screen-md-min) { ... }

/* Large devices (large desktops, 1200px and up) */
@media (min-width: @screen-lg-min) { ... }

We occasionally expand on these media queries to include a max-width to limit CSS to a narrower set of devices.

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@media (max-width: @screen-xs-max) { ... }
@media (min-width: @screen-sm-min) and (max-width: @screen-sm-max) { ... }
@media (min-width: @screen-md-min) and (max-width: @screen-md-max) { ... }
@media (min-width: @screen-lg-min) { ... }

Grid options

See how aspects of the Bootstrap grid system work across multiple devices with a handy table.

  Extra small devices Phones (<768px) Small devices Tablets (≥768px) Medium devices Desktops (≥992px) Large devices Desktops (≥1200px)
Grid behavior Horizontal at all times Collapsed to start, horizontal above breakpoints
Container width None (auto) 750px 970px 1170px
Class prefix .col-xs- .col-sm- .col-md- .col-lg-
# of columns 12
Column width Auto ~62px ~81px ~97px
Gutter width 30px (15px on each side of a column)
Nestable Yes
Offsets Yes
Column ordering Yes

Example: Stacked-to-horizontal

Using a single set of .col-md-* grid classes, you can create a basic grid system that starts out stacked on mobile devices and tablet devices (the extra small to small range) before becoming horizontal on desktop (medium) devices. Place grid columns in any .row.

.col-md-1

.col-md-1

.col-md-1

.col-md-1

.col-md-1

.col-md-1

.col-md-1

.col-md-1

.col-md-1

.col-md-1

.col-md-1

.col-md-1

.col-md-8

.col-md-4

.col-md-4

.col-md-4

.col-md-4

.col-md-6

.col-md-6

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<div class="row">
  <div class="col-md-1">.col-md-1</div>
  <div class="col-md-1">.col-md-1</div>
  <div class="col-md-1">.col-md-1</div>
  <div class="col-md-1">.col-md-1</div>
  <div class="col-md-1">.col-md-1</div>
  <div class="col-md-1">.col-md-1</div>
  <div class="col-md-1">.col-md-1</div>
  <div class="col-md-1">.col-md-1</div>
  <div class="col-md-1">.col-md-1</div>
  <div class="col-md-1">.col-md-1</div>
  <div class="col-md-1">.col-md-1</div>
  <div class="col-md-1">.col-md-1</div>
</div>
<div class="row">
  <div class="col-md-8">.col-md-8</div>
  <div class="col-md-4">.col-md-4</div>
</div>
<div class="row">
  <div class="col-md-4">.col-md-4</div>
  <div class="col-md-4">.col-md-4</div>
  <div class="col-md-4">.col-md-4</div>
</div>
<div class="row">
  <div class="col-md-6">.col-md-6</div>
  <div class="col-md-6">.col-md-6</div>
</div>

Example: Fluid container

Turn any fixed-width grid layout into a full-width layout by changing your outermost .container to .container-fluid.

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<div class="container-fluid">
  <div class="row">
    ...
  </div>
</div>

Example: Mobile and desktop

Don't want your columns to simply stack in smaller devices? Use the extra small and medium device grid classes by adding .col-xs-* .col-md-* to your columns. See the example below for a better idea of how it all works.

.col-xs-12 .col-md-8

.col-xs-6 .col-md-4

.col-xs-6 .col-md-4

.col-xs-6 .col-md-4

.col-xs-6 .col-md-4

.col-xs-6

.col-xs-6

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<!-- Stack the columns on mobile by making one full-width and the other half-width -->
<div class="row">
  <div class="col-xs-12 col-md-8">.col-xs-12 .col-md-8</div>
  <div class="col-xs-6 col-md-4">.col-xs-6 .col-md-4</div>
</div>

<!-- Columns start at 50% wide on mobile and bump up to 33.3% wide on desktop -->
<div class="row">
  <div class="col-xs-6 col-md-4">.col-xs-6 .col-md-4</div>
  <div class="col-xs-6 col-md-4">.col-xs-6 .col-md-4</div>
  <div class="col-xs-6 col-md-4">.col-xs-6 .col-md-4</div>
</div>

<!-- Columns are always 50% wide, on mobile and desktop -->
<div class="row">
  <div class="col-xs-6">.col-xs-6</div>
  <div class="col-xs-6">.col-xs-6</div>
</div>

Example: Mobile, tablet, desktop

Build on the previous example by creating even more dynamic and powerful layouts with tablet .col-sm-* classes.

.col-xs-12 .col-sm-6 .col-md-8

.col-xs-6 .col-md-4

.col-xs-6 .col-sm-4

.col-xs-6 .col-sm-4

.col-xs-6 .col-sm-4

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<div class="row">
  <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-6 col-md-8">.col-xs-12 .col-sm-6 .col-md-8</div>
  <div class="col-xs-6 col-md-4">.col-xs-6 .col-md-4</div>
</div>
<div class="row">
  <div class="col-xs-6 col-sm-4">.col-xs-6 .col-sm-4</div>
  <div class="col-xs-6 col-sm-4">.col-xs-6 .col-sm-4</div>
  <!-- Optional: clear the XS cols if their content doesn't match in height -->
  <div class="clearfix visible-xs-block"></div>
  <div class="col-xs-6 col-sm-4">.col-xs-6 .col-sm-4</div>
</div>

Example: Column wrapping

If more than 12 columns are placed within a single row, each group of extra columns will, as one unit, wrap onto a new line.

.col-xs-9

.col-xs-4
Since 9 + 4 = 13 > 12, this 4-column-wide div gets wrapped onto a new line as one contiguous unit.

.col-xs-6
Subsequent columns continue along the new line.

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<div class="row">
  <div class="col-xs-9">.col-xs-9</div>
  <div class="col-xs-4">.col-xs-4<br>Since 9 + 4 = 13 &gt; 12, this 4-column-wide div gets wrapped onto a new line as one contiguous unit.</div>
  <div class="col-xs-6">.col-xs-6<br>Subsequent columns continue along the new line.</div>
</div>

Responsive column resets

With the four tiers of grids available you're bound to run into issues where, at certain breakpoints, your columns don't clear quite right as one is taller than the other. To fix that, use a combination of a .clearfix and our responsive utility classes.

.col-xs-6 .col-sm-3
Resize your viewport or check it out on your phone for an example.

.col-xs-6 .col-sm-3

.col-xs-6 .col-sm-3

.col-xs-6 .col-sm-3

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<div class="row">
  <div class="col-xs-6 col-sm-3">.col-xs-6 .col-sm-3</div>
  <div class="col-xs-6 col-sm-3">.col-xs-6 .col-sm-3</div>

  <!-- Add the extra clearfix for only the required viewport -->
  <div class="clearfix visible-xs-block"></div>

  <div class="col-xs-6 col-sm-3">.col-xs-6 .col-sm-3</div>
  <div class="col-xs-6 col-sm-3">.col-xs-6 .col-sm-3</div>
</div>

In addition to column clearing at responsive breakpoints, you may need to reset offsets, pushes, or pulls. See this in action in the grid example.

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<div class="row">
  <div class="col-sm-5 col-md-6">.col-sm-5 .col-md-6</div>
  <div class="col-sm-5 col-sm-offset-2 col-md-6 col-md-offset-0">.col-sm-5 .col-sm-offset-2 .col-md-6 .col-md-offset-0</div>
</div>

<div class="row">
  <div class="col-sm-6 col-md-5 col-lg-6">.col-sm-6 .col-md-5 .col-lg-6</div>
  <div class="col-sm-6 col-md-5 col-md-offset-2 col-lg-6 col-lg-offset-0">.col-sm-6 .col-md-5 .col-md-offset-2 .col-lg-6 .col-lg-offset-0</div>
</div>

Remove gutters

Remove the gutters from a row and it's columns with the .row-no-gutters class.

.col-xs-12 .col-md-8

.col-xs-6 .col-md-4

.col-xs-6 .col-md-4

.col-xs-6 .col-md-4

.col-xs-6 .col-md-4

.col-xs-6

.col-xs-6

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<div class="row row-no-gutters">
  <div class="col-xs-12 col-md-8">.col-xs-12 .col-md-8</div>
  <div class="col-xs-6 col-md-4">.col-xs-6 .col-md-4</div>
</div>
<div class="row row-no-gutters">
  <div class="col-xs-6 col-md-4">.col-xs-6 .col-md-4</div>
  <div class="col-xs-6 col-md-4">.col-xs-6 .col-md-4</div>
  <div class="col-xs-6 col-md-4">.col-xs-6 .col-md-4</div>
</div>
<div class="row row-no-gutters">
  <div class="col-xs-6">.col-xs-6</div>
  <div class="col-xs-6">.col-xs-6</div>
</div>

Offsetting columns

Move columns to the right using .col-md-offset-* classes. These classes increase the left margin of a column by * columns. For example, .col-md-offset-4 moves .col-md-4 over four columns.

.col-md-4

.col-md-4 .col-md-offset-4

.col-md-3 .col-md-offset-3

.col-md-3 .col-md-offset-3

.col-md-6 .col-md-offset-3

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<div class="row">
  <div class="col-md-4">.col-md-4</div>
  <div class="col-md-4 col-md-offset-4">.col-md-4 .col-md-offset-4</div>
</div>
<div class="row">
  <div class="col-md-3 col-md-offset-3">.col-md-3 .col-md-offset-3</div>
  <div class="col-md-3 col-md-offset-3">.col-md-3 .col-md-offset-3</div>
</div>
<div class="row">
  <div class="col-md-6 col-md-offset-3">.col-md-6 .col-md-offset-3</div>
</div>

You can also override offsets from lower grid tiers with .col-*-offset-0 classes.

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<div class="row">
  <div class="col-xs-6 col-sm-4">
  </div>
  <div class="col-xs-6 col-sm-4">
  </div>
  <div class="col-xs-6 col-xs-offset-3 col-sm-4 col-sm-offset-0">
  </div>
</div>

Nesting columns

To nest your content with the default grid, add a new .row and set of .col-sm-* columns within an existing .col-sm-* column. Nested rows should include a set of columns that add up to 12 or fewer (it is not required that you use all 12 available columns).

Level 1: .col-sm-9

Level 2: .col-xs-8 .col-sm-6

Level 2: .col-xs-4 .col-sm-6

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<div class="row">
  <div class="col-sm-9">
    Level 1: .col-sm-9
    <div class="row">
      <div class="col-xs-8 col-sm-6">
        Level 2: .col-xs-8 .col-sm-6
      </div>
      <div class="col-xs-4 col-sm-6">
        Level 2: .col-xs-4 .col-sm-6
      </div>
    </div>
  </div>
</div>

Column ordering

Easily change the order of our built-in grid columns with .col-md-push-* and .col-md-pull-* modifier classes.

.col-md-9 .col-md-push-3

.col-md-3 .col-md-pull-9

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<div class="row">
  <div class="col-md-9 col-md-push-3">.col-md-9 .col-md-push-3</div>
  <div class="col-md-3 col-md-pull-9">.col-md-3 .col-md-pull-9</div>
</div>

Less mixins and variables

In addition to prebuilt grid classes for fast layouts, Bootstrap includes Less variables and mixins for quickly generating your own simple, semantic layouts.

Variables

Variables determine the number of columns, the gutter width, and the media query point at which to begin floating columns. We use these to generate the predefined grid classes documented above, as well as for the custom mixins listed below.

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@grid-columns:              12;
@grid-gutter-width:         30px;
@grid-float-breakpoint:     768px;

Mixins

Mixins are used in conjunction with the grid variables to generate semantic CSS for individual grid columns.

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// Creates a wrapper for a series of columns
.make-row(@gutter: @grid-gutter-width) {
  // Then clear the floated columns
  .clearfix();

  @media (min-width: @screen-sm-min) {
    margin-left:  (@gutter / -2);
    margin-right: (@gutter / -2);
  }

  // Negative margin nested rows out to align the content of columns
  .row {
    margin-left:  (@gutter / -2);
    margin-right: (@gutter / -2);
  }
}

// Generate the extra small columns
.make-xs-column(@columns; @gutter: @grid-gutter-width) {
  position: relative;
  // Prevent columns from collapsing when empty
  min-height: 1px;
  // Inner gutter via padding
  padding-left:  (@gutter / 2);
  padding-right: (@gutter / 2);

  // Calculate width based on number of columns available
  @media (min-width: @grid-float-breakpoint) {
    float: left;
    width: percentage((@columns / @grid-columns));
  }
}

// Generate the small columns
.make-sm-column(@columns; @gutter: @grid-gutter-width) {
  position: relative;
  // Prevent columns from collapsing when empty
  min-height: 1px;
  // Inner gutter via padding
  padding-left:  (@gutter / 2);
  padding-right: (@gutter / 2);

  // Calculate width based on number of columns available
  @media (min-width: @screen-sm-min) {
    float: left;
    width: percentage((@columns / @grid-columns));
  }
}

// Generate the small column offsets
.make-sm-column-offset(@columns) {
  @media (min-width: @screen-sm-min) {
    margin-left: percentage((@columns / @grid-columns));
  }
}
.make-sm-column-push(@columns) {
  @media (min-width: @screen-sm-min) {
    left: percentage((@columns / @grid-columns));
  }
}
.make-sm-column-pull(@columns) {
  @media (min-width: @screen-sm-min) {
    right: percentage((@columns / @grid-columns));
  }
}

// Generate the medium columns
.make-md-column(@columns; @gutter: @grid-gutter-width) {
  position: relative;
  // Prevent columns from collapsing when empty
  min-height: 1px;
  // Inner gutter via padding
  padding-left:  (@gutter / 2);
  padding-right: (@gutter / 2);

  // Calculate width based on number of columns available
  @media (min-width: @screen-md-min) {
    float: left;
    width: percentage((@columns / @grid-columns));
  }
}

// Generate the medium column offsets
.make-md-column-offset(@columns) {
  @media (min-width: @screen-md-min) {
    margin-left: percentage((@columns / @grid-columns));
  }
}
.make-md-column-push(@columns) {
  @media (min-width: @screen-md-min) {
    left: percentage((@columns / @grid-columns));
  }
}
.make-md-column-pull(@columns) {
  @media (min-width: @screen-md-min) {
    right: percentage((@columns / @grid-columns));
  }
}

// Generate the large columns
.make-lg-column(@columns; @gutter: @grid-gutter-width) {
  position: relative;
  // Prevent columns from collapsing when empty
  min-height: 1px;
  // Inner gutter via padding
  padding-left:  (@gutter / 2);
  padding-right: (@gutter / 2);

  // Calculate width based on number of columns available
  @media (min-width: @screen-lg-min) {
    float: left;
    width: percentage((@columns / @grid-columns));
  }
}

// Generate the large column offsets
.make-lg-column-offset(@columns) {
  @media (min-width: @screen-lg-min) {
    margin-left: percentage((@columns / @grid-columns));
  }
}
.make-lg-column-push(@columns) {
  @media (min-width: @screen-lg-min) {
    left: percentage((@columns / @grid-columns));
  }
}
.make-lg-column-pull(@columns) {
  @media (min-width: @screen-lg-min) {
    right: percentage((@columns / @grid-columns));
  }
}

Example usage

You can modify the variables to your own custom values, or just use the mixins with their default values. Here's an example of using the default settings to create a two-column layout with a gap between.

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.wrapper {
  .make-row();
}
.content-main {
  .make-lg-column(8);
}
.content-secondary {
  .make-lg-column(3);
  .make-lg-column-offset(1);
}

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<div class="wrapper">
  <div class="content-main">...</div>
  <div class="content-secondary">...</div>
</div>

Typography

Headings

All HTML headings, <h1> through <h6>, are available. .h1 through .h6 classes are also available, for when you want to match the font styling of a heading but still want your text to be displayed inline.

h1. Bootstrap heading

Semibold 36px

h2. Bootstrap heading

Semibold 30px

h3. Bootstrap heading

Semibold 24px

h4. Bootstrap heading

Semibold 18px

h5. Bootstrap heading

Semibold 14px

h6. Bootstrap heading

Semibold 12px

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<h1>h1. Bootstrap heading</h1>
<h2>h2. Bootstrap heading</h2>
<h3>h3. Bootstrap heading</h3>
<h4>h4. Bootstrap heading</h4>
<h5>h5. Bootstrap heading</h5>
<h6>h6. Bootstrap heading</h6>

Create lighter, secondary text in any heading with a generic <small> tag or the .small class.

h1. Bootstrap heading Secondary text

h2. Bootstrap heading Secondary text

h3. Bootstrap heading Secondary text

h4. Bootstrap heading Secondary text

h5. Bootstrap heading Secondary text

h6. Bootstrap heading Secondary text

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<h1>h1. Bootstrap heading <small>Secondary text</small></h1>
<h2>h2. Bootstrap heading <small>Secondary text</small></h2>
<h3>h3. Bootstrap heading <small>Secondary text</small></h3>
<h4>h4. Bootstrap heading <small>Secondary text</small></h4>
<h5>h5. Bootstrap heading <small>Secondary text</small></h5>
<h6>h6. Bootstrap heading <small>Secondary text</small></h6>

Body copy

Bootstrap's global default font-size is 14px, with a line-height of 1.428. This is applied to the <body> and all paragraphs. In addition, <p> (paragraphs) receive a bottom margin of half their computed line-height (10px by default).

Nullam quis risus eget urna mollis ornare vel eu leo. Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Nullam id dolor id nibh ultricies vehicula.

Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Donec ullamcorper nulla non metus auctor fringilla. Duis mollis, est non commodo luctus, nisi erat porttitor ligula, eget lacinia odio sem nec elit. Donec ullamcorper nulla non metus auctor fringilla.

Maecenas sed diam eget risus varius blandit sit amet non magna. Donec id elit non mi porta gravida at eget metus. Duis mollis, est non commodo luctus, nisi erat porttitor ligula, eget lacinia odio sem nec elit.

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<p>...</p>

Lead body copy

Make a paragraph stand out by adding .lead.

Vivamus sagittis lacus vel augue laoreet rutrum faucibus dolor auctor. Duis mollis, est non commodo luctus.

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<p class="lead">...</p>

Built with Less

The typographic scale is based on two Less variables in variables.less@font-size-base and @line-height-base. The first is the base font-size used throughout and the second is the base line-height. We use those variables and some simple math to create the margins, paddings, and line-heights of all our type and more. Customize them and Bootstrap adapts.

Inline text elements

Marked text

For highlighting a run of text due to its relevance in another context, use the <mark> tag.

You can use the mark tag to highlight text.

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You can use the mark tag to <mark>highlight</mark> text.

Deleted text

For indicating blocks of text that have been deleted use the <del> tag.

This line of text is meant to be treated as deleted text.

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<del>This line of text is meant to be treated as deleted text.</del>

Strikethrough text

For indicating blocks of text that are no longer relevant use the <s> tag.

This line of text is meant to be treated as no longer accurate.

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<s>This line of text is meant to be treated as no longer accurate.</s>

Inserted text

For indicating additions to the document use the <ins> tag.

This line of text is meant to be treated as an addition to the document.

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<ins>This line of text is meant to be treated as an addition to the document.</ins>

Underlined text

To underline text use the <u> tag.

This line of text will render as underlined

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<u>This line of text will render as underlined</u>

Make use of HTML's default emphasis tags with lightweight styles.

Small text

For de-emphasizing inline or blocks of text, use the <small> tag to set text at 85% the size of the parent. Heading elements receive their own font-size for nested <small> elements.

You may alternatively use an inline element with .small in place of any <small>.

This line of text is meant to be treated as fine print.

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<small>This line of text is meant to be treated as fine print.</small>

Bold

For emphasizing a snippet of text with a heavier font-weight.

The following snippet of text is rendered as bold text.

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<strong>rendered as bold text</strong>

Italics

For emphasizing a snippet of text with italics.

The following snippet of text is rendered as italicized text.

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<em>rendered as italicized text</em>

Alternate elements

Feel free to use <b> and <i> in HTML5. <b> is meant to highlight words or phrases without conveying additional importance while <i> is mostly for voice, technical terms, etc.

Alignment classes

Easily realign text to components with text alignment classes.

Left aligned text.

Center aligned text.

Right aligned text.

Justified text.

No wrap text.

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<p class="text-left">Left aligned text.</p>
<p class="text-center">Center aligned text.</p>
<p class="text-right">Right aligned text.</p>
<p class="text-justify">Justified text.</p>
<p class="text-nowrap">No wrap text.</p>

Transformation classes

Transform text in components with text capitalization classes.

lowercased text.

UPPERCASED TEXT.

Capitalized Text.

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<p class="text-lowercase">Lowercased text.</p>
<p class="text-uppercase">Uppercased text.</p>
<p class="text-capitalize">Capitalized text.</p>

Abbreviations

Stylized implementation of HTML's <abbr> element for abbreviations and acronyms to show the expanded version on hover. Abbreviations with a title attribute have a light dotted bottom border and a help cursor on hover, providing additional context on hover and to users of assistive technologies.

Basic abbreviation

An abbreviation of the word attribute is attr.

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<abbr title="attribute">attr</abbr>

Initialism

Add .initialism to an abbreviation for a slightly smaller font-size.

HTML is the best thing since sliced bread.

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<abbr title="HyperText Markup Language" class="initialism">HTML</abbr>

Addresses

Present contact information for the nearest ancestor or the entire body of work. Preserve formatting by ending all lines with <br>.

Twitter, Inc.
1355 Market Street, Suite 900
San Francisco, CA 94103
P: (123) 456-7890

Full Name
first.last@example.com

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<address>
  <strong>Twitter, Inc.</strong><br>
  1355 Market Street, Suite 900<br>
  San Francisco, CA 94103<br>
  <abbr title="Phone">P:</abbr> (123) 456-7890
</address>

<address>
  <strong>Full Name</strong><br>
  <a href="mailto:#">first.last@example.com</a>
</address>

Blockquotes

For quoting blocks of content from another source within your document.

Default blockquote

Wrap <blockquote> around any HTML as the quote. For straight quotes, we recommend a <p>.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Integer posuere erat a ante.

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<blockquote>
  <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Integer posuere erat a ante.</p>
</blockquote>

Blockquote options

Style and content changes for simple variations on a standard <blockquote>.

Naming a source

Add a <footer> for identifying the source. Wrap the name of the source work in <cite>.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Integer posuere erat a ante.

Someone famous in Source Title

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<blockquote>
  <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Integer posuere erat a ante.</p>
  <footer>Someone famous in <cite title="Source Title">Source Title</cite></footer>
</blockquote>

Alternate displays

Add .blockquote-reverse for a blockquote with right-aligned content.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Integer posuere erat a ante.

Someone famous in Source Title

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<blockquote class="blockquote-reverse">
  ...
</blockquote>

Lists

Unordered

A list of items in which the order does not explicitly matter.

  • Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet
  • Consectetur adipiscing elit
  • Integer molestie lorem at massa
  • Facilisis in pretium nisl aliquet
  • Nulla volutpat aliquam velit
    • Phasellus iaculis neque
    • Purus sodales ultricies
    • Vestibulum laoreet porttitor sem
    • Ac tristique libero volutpat at
  • Faucibus porta lacus fringilla vel
  • Aenean sit amet erat nunc
  • Eget porttitor lorem

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<ul>
  <li>...</li>
</ul>

Ordered

A list of items in which the order does explicitly matter.

  1. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet
  2. Consectetur adipiscing elit
  3. Integer molestie lorem at massa
  4. Facilisis in pretium nisl aliquet
  5. Nulla volutpat aliquam velit
  6. Faucibus porta lacus fringilla vel
  7. Aenean sit amet erat nunc
  8. Eget porttitor lorem

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<ol>
  <li>...</li>
</ol>

Unstyled

Remove the default list-style and left margin on list items (immediate children only). This only applies to immediate children list items, meaning you will need to add the class for any nested lists as well.

  • Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet
  • Consectetur adipiscing elit
  • Integer molestie lorem at massa
  • Facilisis in pretium nisl aliquet
  • Nulla volutpat aliquam velit
    • Phasellus iaculis neque
    • Purus sodales ultricies
    • Vestibulum laoreet porttitor sem
    • Ac tristique libero volutpat at
  • Faucibus porta lacus fringilla vel
  • Aenean sit amet erat nunc
  • Eget porttitor lorem

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<ul class="list-unstyled">
  <li>...</li>
</ul>

Inline

Place all list items on a single line with display: inline-block; and some light padding.

  • Lorem ipsum
  •  
  • Phasellus iaculis
  •  
  • Nulla volutpat

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<ul class="list-inline">
  <li>...</li>
</ul>

Description

A list of terms with their associated descriptions.

Description lists

A description list is perfect for defining terms.

Euismod

Vestibulum id ligula porta felis euismod semper eget lacinia odio sem nec elit.

Donec id elit non mi porta gravida at eget metus.

Malesuada porta

Etiam porta sem malesuada magna mollis euismod.

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<dl>
  <dt>...</dt>
  <dd>...</dd>
</dl>

Horizontal description

Make terms and descriptions in <dl> line up side-by-side. Starts off stacked like default <dl>s, but when the navbar expands, so do these.

Description lists

A description list is perfect for defining terms.

Euismod

Vestibulum id ligula porta felis euismod semper eget lacinia odio sem nec elit.

Donec id elit non mi porta gravida at eget metus.

Malesuada porta

Etiam porta sem malesuada magna mollis euismod.

Felis euismod semper eget lacinia

Fusce dapibus, tellus ac cursus commodo, tortor mauris condimentum nibh, ut fermentum massa justo sit amet risus.

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<dl class="dl-horizontal">
  <dt>...</dt>
  <dd>...</dd>
</dl>

Auto-truncating

Horizontal description lists will truncate terms that are too long to fit in the left column with text-overflow. In narrower viewports, they will change to the default stacked layout.

Code

Inline

Wrap inline snippets of code with <code>.

For example, <section> should be wrapped as inline.

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For example, <code>&lt;section&gt;</code> should be wrapped as inline.

User input

Use the <kbd> to indicate input that is typically entered via keyboard.

To switch directories, type cd followed by the name of the directory.
To edit settings, press ctrl + ,

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To switch directories, type <kbd>cd</kbd> followed by the name of the directory.<br>
To edit settings, press <kbd><kbd>ctrl</kbd> + <kbd>,</kbd></kbd>

Basic block

Use <pre> for multiple lines of code. Be sure to escape any angle brackets in the code for proper rendering.

<p>Sample text here...</p>

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<pre>&lt;p&gt;Sample text here...&lt;/p&gt;</pre>

You may optionally add the .pre-scrollable class, which will set a max-height of 350px and provide a y-axis scrollbar.

Variables

For indicating variables use the <var> tag.

y = mx + b

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<var>y</var> = <var>m</var><var>x</var> + <var>b</var>

Sample output

For indicating blocks sample output from a program use the <samp> tag.

This text is meant to be treated as sample output from a computer program.

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<samp>This text is meant to be treated as sample output from a computer program.</samp>

Tables

Basic example

For basic styling—light padding and only horizontal dividers—add the base class .table to any <table>. It may seem super redundant, but given the widespread use of tables for other plugins like calendars and date pickers, we've opted to isolate our custom table styles.

Optional table caption.
# First Name Last Name Username
1 Mark Otto @mdo
2 Jacob Thornton @fat
3 Larry the Bird @twitter

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<table class="table">
  ...
</table>

Striped rows

Use .table-striped to add zebra-striping to any table row within the <tbody>.

Cross-browser compatibility

Striped tables are styled via the :nth-child CSS selector, which is not available in Internet Explorer 8.

# First Name Last Name Username
1 Mark Otto @mdo
2 Jacob Thornton @fat
3 Larry the Bird @twitter

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<table class="table table-striped">
  ...
</table>

Bordered table

Add .table-bordered for borders on all sides of the table and cells.

# First Name Last Name Username
1 Mark Otto @mdo
2 Jacob Thornton @fat
3 Larry the Bird @twitter

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<table class="table table-bordered">
  ...
</table>

Hover rows

Add .table-hover to enable a hover state on table rows within a <tbody>.

# First Name Last Name Username
1 Mark Otto @mdo
2 Jacob Thornton @fat
3 Larry the Bird @twitter

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<table class="table table-hover">
  ...
</table>

Condensed table

Add .table-condensed to make tables more compact by cutting cell padding in half.

# First Name Last Name Username
1 Mark Otto @mdo
2 Jacob Thornton @fat
3 Larry the Bird @twitter

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<table class="table table-condensed">
  ...
</table>

Contextual classes

Use contextual classes to color table rows or individual cells.

Class Description
.active Applies the hover color to a particular row or cell
.success Indicates a successful or positive action
.info Indicates a neutral informative change or action
.warning Indicates a warning that might need attention
.danger Indicates a dangerous or potentially negative action
# Column heading Column heading Column heading
1 Column content Column content Column content
2 Column content Column content Column content
3 Column content Column content Column content
4 Column content Column content Column content
5 Column content Column content Column content
6 Column content Column content Column content
7 Column content Column content Column content
8 Column content Column content Column content
9 Column content Column content Column content

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<!-- On rows -->
<tr class="active">...</tr>
<tr class="success">...</tr>
<tr class="warning">...</tr>
<tr class="danger">...</tr>
<tr class="info">...</tr>

<!-- On cells (`td` or `th`) -->
<tr>
  <td class="active">...</td>
  <td class="success">...</td>
  <td class="warning">...</td>
  <td class="danger">...</td>
  <td class="info">...</td>
</tr>

Conveying meaning to assistive technologies

Using color to add meaning to a table row or individual cell only provides a visual indication, which will not be conveyed to users of assistive technologies – such as screen readers. Ensure that information denoted by the color is either obvious from the content itself (the visible text in the relevant table row/cell), or is included through alternative means, such as additional text hidden with the .sr-only class.

Responsive tables

Create responsive tables by wrapping any .table in .table-responsive to make them scroll horizontally on small devices (under 768px). When viewing on anything larger than 768px wide, you will not see any difference in these tables.

Vertical clipping/truncation

Responsive tables make use of overflow-y: hidden, which clips off any content that goes beyond the bottom or top edges of the table. In particular, this can clip off dropdown menus and other third-party widgets.

Firefox and fieldsets

Firefox has some awkward fieldset styling involving width that interferes with the responsive table. This cannot be overridden without a Firefox-specific hack that we don't provide in Bootstrap:

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@-moz-document url-prefix() {
  fieldset { display: table-cell; }
}

For more information, read this Stack Overflow answer.

# Table heading Table heading Table heading Table heading Table heading Table heading
1 Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell
2 Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell
3 Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell
# Table heading Table heading Table heading Table heading Table heading Table heading
1 Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell
2 Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell
3 Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell Table cell

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<div class="table-responsive">
  <table class="table">
    ...
  </table>
</div>

Forms

Basic example

Individual form controls automatically receive some global styling. All textual <input><textarea>, and <select> elements with .form-control are set to width: 100%; by default. Wrap labels and controls in .form-group for optimum spacing.

Email address

Password

File input

Example block-level help text here.

Check me out

Submit

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<form>
  <div class="form-group">
    <label for="exampleInputEmail1">Email address</label>
    <input type="email" class="form-control" id="exampleInputEmail1" placeholder="Email">
  </div>
  <div class="form-group">
    <label for="exampleInputPassword1">Password</label>
    <input type="password" class="form-control" id="exampleInputPassword1" placeholder="Password">
  </div>
  <div class="form-group">
    <label for="exampleInputFile">File input</label>
    <input type="file" id="exampleInputFile">
    <p class="help-block">Example block-level help text here.</p>
  </div>
  <div class="checkbox">
    <label>
      <input type="checkbox"> Check me out
    </label>
  </div>
  <button type="submit" class="btn btn-default">Submit</button>
</form>

Don't mix form groups with input groups

Do not mix form groups directly with input groups. Instead, nest the input group inside of the form group.

Inline form

Add .form-inline to your form (which doesn't have to be a <form>) for left-aligned and inline-block controls. This only applies to forms within viewports that are at least 768px wide.

May require custom widths

Inputs and selects have width: 100%; applied by default in Bootstrap. Within inline forms, we reset that to width: auto; so multiple controls can reside on the same line. Depending on your layout, additional custom widths may be required.

Always add labels

Screen readers will have trouble with your forms if you don't include a label for every input. For these inline forms, you can hide the labels using the .sr-only class. There are further alternative methods of providing a label for assistive technologies, such as the aria-labelaria-labelledby or title attribute. If none of these is present, screen readers may resort to using the placeholder attribute, if present, but note that use of placeholder as a replacement for other labelling methods is not advised.

Name 

 

Email 

 Send invitation

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<form class="form-inline">
  <div class="form-group">
    <label for="exampleInputName2">Name</label>
    <input type="text" class="form-control" id="exampleInputName2" placeholder="Jane Doe">
  </div>
  <div class="form-group">
    <label for="exampleInputEmail2">Email</label>
    <input type="email" class="form-control" id="exampleInputEmail2" placeholder="jane.doe@example.com">
  </div>
  <button type="submit" class="btn btn-default">Send invitation</button>
</form>

Email address

 

Password

 

 Remember me

 Sign in

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<form class="form-inline">
  <div class="form-group">
    <label class="sr-only" for="exampleInputEmail3">Email address</label>
    <input type="email" class="form-control" id="exampleInputEmail3" placeholder="Email">
  </div>
  <div class="form-group">
    <label class="sr-only" for="exampleInputPassword3">Password</label>
    <input type="password" class="form-control" id="exampleInputPassword3" placeholder="Password">
  </div>
  <div class="checkbox">
    <label>
      <input type="checkbox"> Remember me
    </label>
  </div>
  <button type="submit" class="btn btn-default">Sign in</button>
</form>

Amount (in dollars)

$

.00

 Transfer cash

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<form class="form-inline">
  <div class="form-group">
    <label class="sr-only" for="exampleInputAmount">Amount (in dollars)</label>
    <div class="input-group">
      <div class="input-group-addon">$</div>
      <input type="text" class="form-control" id="exampleInputAmount" placeholder="Amount">
      <div class="input-group-addon">.00</div>
    </div>
  </div>
  <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">Transfer cash</button>
</form>

Horizontal form

Use Bootstrap's predefined grid classes to align labels and groups of form controls in a horizontal layout by adding .form-horizontal to the form (which doesn't have to be a <form>). Doing so changes .form-groups to behave as grid rows, so no need for .row.

Email

 

Password

 

Remember me

Sign in

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<form class="form-horizontal">
  <div class="form-group">
    <label for="inputEmail3" class="col-sm-2 control-label">Email</label>
    <div class="col-sm-10">
      <input type="email" class="form-control" id="inputEmail3" placeholder="Email">
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="form-group">
    <label for="inputPassword3" class="col-sm-2 control-label">Password</label>
    <div class="col-sm-10">
      <input type="password" class="form-control" id="inputPassword3" placeholder="Password">
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="form-group">
    <div class="col-sm-offset-2 col-sm-10">
      <div class="checkbox">
        <label>
          <input type="checkbox"> Remember me
        </label>
      </div>
    </div>
  </div>
  <div class="form-group">
    <div class="col-sm-offset-2 col-sm-10">
      <button type="submit" class="btn btn-default">Sign in</button>
    </div>
  </div>
</form>

Supported controls

Examples of standard form controls supported in an example form layout.

Inputs

Most common form control, text-based input fields. Includes support for all HTML5 types: textpassworddatetimedatetime-localdatemonthtimeweeknumberemailurlsearchtel, and color.

Type declaration required

Inputs will only be fully styled if their type is properly declared.

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<input type="text" class="form-control" placeholder="Text input">

Input groups

To add integrated text or buttons before and/or after any text-based <input>check out the input group component.

Textarea

Form control which supports multiple lines of text. Change rows attribute as necessary.

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<textarea class="form-control" rows="3"></textarea>

Checkboxes and radios

Checkboxes are for selecting one or several options in a list, while radios are for selecting one option from many.

Disabled checkboxes and radios are supported, but to provide a "not-allowed" cursor on hover of the parent <label>, you'll need to add the .disabled class to the parent .radio.radio-inline.checkbox, or .checkbox-inline.

Default (stacked)

Option one is this and that—be sure to include why it's great

Option two is disabled

 

Option one is this and that—be sure to include why it's great

Option two can be something else and selecting it will deselect option one

Option three is disabled

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